CRUDE OIL DESALTING

 

The desalting of crude oil is a process that does not have a high profile, but is vital to the operation of the modern petroleum refinery. Desalters provide more protection to costly refinery equipment than any other single piece of process hardware. Refining Process Services and Nalco Champion have developed this program to provide an in-depth, yet practical review of both the art and science of crude oil desalting. Maintaining smooth operation of crude oil desalting units is both critically important and quite difficult. Since there are so many significant variables to control, desalter operation must constantly be adjusted to maintain optimum performance with the ever-changing sources of crude oil.

 

The program's content is both comprehensive and wide-ranging. Sessions begin with a discussion of the fundamentals of the desalting process including crude oil quality impact, the operating variables, key equipment, various design options and major process variables. Once the fundamentals are established, discussion moves into the topics of unit operations, monitoring, and process troubleshooting. An experienced group of industry professionals has been assembled for the presentation of this program. The speakers are Mr. Dennis Haynes and Mr. Edgar Villoria of Nalco Champion, and Mr. Tom Collins, an independent consultant, recently retired from of Forum Energy Technologies.

 

Program participants will have the opportunity to obtain a broad working knowledge of desalter operations, to gain insight into advancements in the field, and to interact with others working in this area. The program is ideal for personnel involved in refinery process engineering, plant operations, and technical service. Process engineers from design and construction companies as well as those providing services to the petroleum refining industry should also find this program very beneficial.

 

PROGRAM OUTLINE 


1.       BENEFITS OF CRUDE OIL DESALTING

Ø General Overview

2.       IMPACT OF CRUDE OIL QUALITY ON

    DESALTER PERFORMANCE

Ø Introduction to Desalting

Ø Crude Oil Impurities:  Water, Salt and Solids

Ø Impact of Organic Acids, Asphaltenes

Ø Desalting Heavy and Opportunity Crudes

Ø Tankage Dehydration

3.       FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICAL DESALTING

Ø Wash Water Addition

Ø Rate and Wash Water Quality

Ø Mixing / Contact

+ Mix Valves

+ Static Mixer

Ø Coalescence

+ Stoke's Law and Electrical Voltage

Ø Performance Control Variables

Ø Dehydration Efficiency vs. Salt Removal Efficiency

4.      TYPES OF DESALTING SYSTEMS

Ø Single-Stage Dehydrator

Ø Single-Stage Desalter

Ø Two-Stage Desalter

Ø Three-Stage Desalter

Ø Typical Operating Conditions and Performance

5.      DESALTER COMPONENTS

Ø Process Vessel

Ø Distribution System

Ø Electrodes and Transactors

Ø Mud Wash   

6.      LEVEL CONTROLLERS 

      ØTraditional, Microwave, Sonar, Radiation

         Ø Radiation / Neutron Backscatter Devices Available  

7.      DESALTER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Ø Vessel Size

Ø Number of Stages

Ø Transactor Size and Power Consumption

Ø Crude Properties

8.       COMMERCIAL DESALTER DESIGNS

Ø Cameron

Ø Forum

9.       FACTORS THAT AFFECT DESALTER OPERATION

    AND PERFORMANCE

Ø Crude Oil Feed Rate and Quality

Ø Temperature / Viscosity / Density Relationships

Ø Electrical Field Intensity

Ø Wash Water Rate, Quality and Flow Configuration

Ø Emulsion Formation (Pumps, Exchangers, Valves, Mixers)

Ø Control of Water Level and Emulsion Layers

Ø Demulsifier Technology and Addition Rate

Ø Mud Washing and Brine Recycle

10.      TYPES OF DESALTING APPLICATIONS

Ø Heavy Crude Desalting

Ø FCC Feed Desalting

Ø Distillate Treating

11.      DESALTER TROUBLESHOOTING

Ø Oily Effluent

Ø Poor Dehydration and/or Desalting

Ø Workshop

12.      ECONOMIC IMPACT


PROGRAM SPEAKERS  

 

     Tom Collins is an independent consultant who recently retired as Vice President- Electrostatic Process Certified Technical Services at Forum Energy Technologies in Houston, Texas. His responsibilities at Forum Energy Technologies included technical sales, process review, desalter design, troubleshooting, training, optimization and business development.  Tom started in the Technical Service Department at Petreco in 1980, servicing desalters worldwide.  He spent his career in the field of desalting and has over 39 years experience in this area.  Tom has authored and co-authored papers on desalting for the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and has been active in the AFPM, formerly the NPRA, for over 30 years. 

Dennis Haynes is an Industry Technical Consultant for Nalco Champion in Sugar Land, Texas.  He has over 27 years of experience in the hydrocarbon processing industry.  He is responsible for technical support, program development and application optimization for the company’s refinery process chemical programs used in crude management.  He has experience in refineries in North America, Europe, Africa, and the Asia Pacific area.  Dennis holds a B.S. degree in Chemistry from the University of British Columbia.

 

Edgar Villoria is an Industry Technical Consultant for Nalco Champion.  He has over 26 years of experience in the Refining / Upgrading industry.  He is responsible for technical support, start-up, troubleshooting and chemical program optimization for the company’s refinery process chemical programs.  He worked in various sales, marketing and technical positions at Nalco and has extensive experience in refineries in the US, Latin America, Canada and Spain.  Prior to Nalco, Edgar was employed as a Process and Corrosion Engineer in Venezuela for 6 years. He holds a degree in Chemical Engineering and a post graduate degree as a Specialist in Process Engineering.